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Development and application of mitigation and adaptation
strategies and measures for counteracting the global
Urban Heat Islands phenomenon
This project is implemented through
the CENTRAL EUROPE Programme
co-financed by the ERDF

Pilotnih območij – Budimpešta

General information
Title of the pilot action Budapest and its metropolitan area
Geographic location Budapest geography shows that this capital of Hungary is situated along both the banks of the river Danube in the center of the Carpathian Basin. The western part that is known, as Buda comprise hilly area while the eastern part that is known as Pest is consisted of plain land.
Starting date (effective) 2011
Ending date (estim.) 2014
Presentation of the pilot area

Pilot Action Budapest (1.1 MiB)

Descriptions of interested area, sub-area (if considered), pilot area in details

  • General description of the area including the pilot area
    To be defined
  • Description of specific pilot area (including physical, economic and social conditions)
    To be defined

Description of the planning systems, social-economic and environmental conditions

  • Territorial level of planning, including main instruments
    The local government system of Budapest is unique: a two-tier arrangement – unparalleled in Hungary – operates in the capital comprising the municipality of the City and those of the Districts. The Act on Local Governments specifies different rules with respect to its special two-tier system of local government. Both the City and the Districts are local governments, not subordinated to one another, each having specific duties and powers, specified by law. Both are eligible to exercise the basic rights of local governments.
  • Social and economic conditions
    A short review of socio-economic conditions of development of the BudapestMetropolitan Area. Due to the sub-urbanization process (since the 1990s the population of the suburban area grew by 20 percent) suburban municipalities established new residential areas and significantly decreased the extent of green surfaces around Budapest. The infrastructure has improved and is doing so quickly in the suburban area. Still, the development is not fast enough in many places, finding it difficult to keep pace with the growth of the population. This led to protest against further growth in most suburbs, though in varying intensity.As a consequence, the problems of mass transportation, land use, shared communal services and educational and health institutions remain unresolved.
  • Environmental conditions
    Budapest posses 83 km² green area that includes forests, parks and gardens like arboretums and botanical gardens. The protection of green areas, which do much to improve the quality of life in the city is also divided. The municipality has authority over larger parks, avenues and cemeteries while the districts have authority over other parks and public squares. Green areas with significant conditioning effect, however are not regulated by local authorities as these are registered as national defense areas or are connected to transportation areas. The situation is made even worse by the fact that licenses for establishments on larger green areas and public squares are given by the local authorities in the area and the Municipality has no say in the matter. In addition to this limited budget of the districts makes it necessary that the districts try to finance development by “selling” existing and potential green areas. The most “fashionable” trade agreement is that the investor promises development in exchange for the chosen green area that the district would be unable to accomplish (such as parking garages).Other environmental problem of the city is air pollutant. PM concentration is frequently exceeding a limit values for health protection in Budapest.
  • Main climatic -meteorological characteristics and phenomena in the pilot area
    Budapest has a transitional climate that is influenced by the weather of the Transdanubian region (mild and rainy) and the weather of the Great Plain (variable). The daily temperature fluctuation is quite high. The annual average mean temperature is 9.7 °C in the whole of the country and 11.2°C in Budapest. The mean temperature in the hottest month, July, is 20.0 °C, in the coldest month, January, 2.1 °C. On a hot summer day temperatures may reach 33- 38°C, while in cold winters temperature may drop to -25.0 °C. Spring starts in early April in Budapest and is accompanied by lots of showers. The summers are dry and warm. Autumns are cool, foggy and rainy. Winters are relatively short, moderately cold and usually dry, but sometimes brilliant sunny. The little snow the city gets usually disappears after a few days. The yearly rainfall is about 617 mm that consist of two stronger (early summer and autumn) and two dryer periods (middle of winter and early autumn). Sunny hours/year in Budapest : 1853 hours.

Specific need and climate protection initiatives developed in the area (eventual)

  • Specific needs of the area
    To be defined
  • Specific experiences related with climate or energy policies in the area or in comparable contexts
    Initiatives of national spatial development policy:-Spatial monitoring and evaluation system with several module in Climate change-The 4 –year Development Program to prevent in Adverse Effect of Climate Change (2010-2013)-Climate Change Vulnerability Assessment-Hungarian Climate Law, which is the first such a legislation in the EU.

Main redevelopment indication, expected results (also positive effect on other sectorial polices), local involvement

  • Redevelopment indications, planning tools to be implemented, main guidelines to develop the specific project
    Local government level has exclusive competence on land use regulations, development documents, integrated urban development strategies appeared (urban regeneration SF support. In local sector plans climate aspects also appeared.
  • Expected results
    Evaluation of climate change effect and recommendations for mitigation measures in Budapest.-Evaluation of climate change effect on spatial pattern of economy and society.-Elaboration of methodology to enable the integration measures into the local development plan.
  • Describe how the expected results of your PA can positively affect the environmental and agricultural policies in your region
    Spatial policy legislation involves mitigation of climate change effects.
  • Report how the different level of stakeholders will be involved in the pilot action
    They will be invited to participate in meeting of local working group regularly.