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Development and application of mitigation and adaptation
strategies and measures for counteracting the global
Urban Heat Islands phenomenon
Tento projekt je realizován prostřednictvím
spolufinancovaného z ERDF

Pilotní oblast – Stuttgart

General information
Title of the pilot action UHI mitigation by means of an existing local planning system for activating brownfields
Geographic location Inner city of Stuttgart; 48° 46´ north latitude,9° 10´ east longitude Average, altitude:Appr. 260 m above SL
Starting date (effective) 2011
Ending date (estim.) 2014
Presentation of the pilot area

Pilot Action Stuttgart (759.2 KiB)

Der städtische Wärmeinseleffekt in Stuttgart (73.1 MiB)

Descriptions of interested area, sub-area (if considered), pilot area in details

  • General description of the area including the pilot area
    Stuttgart is the State Capital of Baden-Württemberg, and seat of the Administrative District of Stuttgart and the Stuttgart Association of Local Government Authorities. The greater city is subdivided into 23 districts, each with its own District Chairperson and District Advisory Committee.Situated at the heart of Europe, Germany is one of the largest and most significant consumer markets in the European Union. The Stuttgart region is a leading high-tech region and Germany’s strongest commercial metropolitan area.Stuttgart is working towards the sustained development of the city based on the principle of “inner development before outer development”. In Stuttgart, no less than 39 per cent of the land is taken up by protected landscapes and nature conservation areas. With forests and recreational areas accounting for 25 per cent of its area, Stuttgart is one of Germany’s greenest metropolitan cities. Inner city is a high density area devided in two basins and almost completely surrounded by mountain ranges reaching up to 500 m asl. The only opening to the “Neckar” valley is in the northeast along the “Nesenbach” stream. In the southwest direction, the “Nesenbach” proceeds in a narrow valley.The traffic situation in some areas of the inner city is still placing a burden on residents and drivers alike, and there is still a need for additional affordable housing, so the activation of brownfields is very important for Stuttgart. On the other side not or rarely used brownfields could undertake a significant task to reduce Urban Heat Island.
  • Description of specific pilot area (including physical, economic and social conditions)
    To be defined (one ore more brownfield areas in the inner city identified in the local planning system)

Description of the planning systems, social-economic and environmental conditions

  • Territorial level of planning, including main instruments
    State Development Plan (Baden-Württemberg)Regional Plan/Regional Landscape Framework Plan (Region of Stuttgart)Preparatory Land Use Plan/Landscape Plan (Municipality of Stuttgart)Urban Framework Plan (sectorial)Local Development Plan (Municipality of Stuttgart)local plan to reduce air pollution and noise, SEAP (covenant of mayors).
  • Social and economic conditions
    Metropolitan area, local economy oriented to industry, small-scale industry, university, tertiary …Inhabitants: 591 568 including 38.3 % inhabitants with migration background, total area (hectares): 20 735, population density (inh. per sq.km of residential and circulation area): 5 588, private households in total 305 228 of which single person households: 50.1 %, arrivals: 42 851, departures: 43 062. Economy:Gross value added at cost of manufacture (billion Euro): 30.5, total employment at workplace 464 700 of which Manufacturing sector: 23 %, Service sector: 76 %; patent registrations (region of Stuttgart) per 100 000 inhabitants: 180, Unemployment quota: 5(% of dependent civilian labour force).
  • Environmental conditions
    Due to Stuttgart’s topographic conditions and position in the city basin, the condition of the air has been an important subject in the fields of city planning and construction since the beginning of the city’s settlement.The condition of the air in Stuttgart has been monitored for many years. The state of Baden-Württemberg has operated a measuring network for this purpose since 1980. The local Office for Environmental Protection has also collected data on air pollution with a stationary monitoring station in the city centre since 1965.In contrast to traffic-related air pollutants, the ambient air concentration of predominantly non-traffic pollutants (e.g. sulphur dioxide, sedimenting particulate matter) has dropped significantly in the previous years. Traffic-related pollutants (e.g. nitrogen oxides, PM10, ozone) remain on a high level. The concentrations of nitrogen dioxide and PM10 exceed the limit values for traffic restriction measures along numerous roads in the city.We can assume that the ambient air concentration of air pollutants in Stuttgart will decrease thanks to subsequent efforts in the field of air pollution control on both the local and the federal level. This is also true for the traffic sector. Even if the traffic volume continues to rise, we can expect a further decrease in traffic-related emissions as a result of newly developed car technologies, a diminished and more efficient fuel consumption and improved fuels.11.Main climatic -meteorological characteristics and phenomena in the pilot area.
  • Main climatic -meteorological characteristics and phenomena in the pilot area
    Stuttgart’s climate is marked by its position in the wide Neckar basin, shielded by highlands (Black Forest in the West, the Swabian Alb in the South). The city’s position has a significant influence on all climatic elements like radiation, temperature, humidity, precipitation and wind. As Stuttgart lies on the lee side of the highlands, the average hours of sunshine it sees per year are relatively considerable (1,720 hours). While the sun shines only less than 60 hours in December, it shines more than 230 hours in July. The maximum amount of global radiation per month is reached in August (50 kJ/cm2), in December it is only 9 kJ/cm2. The annual amount of global radiation is about 400 kJ/cm2. A share of 39 % of the astronomically possible sunshine is achieved in Stuttgart, a fact which is mostly due to cloudiness. Stuttgart’s climate is mild with an average annual temperature of about 10 °C in the basin of the city. Besides the Upper Rhine Valley, greater Stuttgart is one of the warmest regions in Germany. The region of Stuttgart has very little precipitation compared to other regions in Germany. This is mostly due to Stuttgart’s above-mentioned position on the lee side of highlands. The average annual amount of precipitation in the centre is 679 mm. A major element of Stuttgart’s climate is the light wind. The whole Neckar Valley is known for low wind speeds and very frequent lulls. This is the result of small air pressure differences common to Southern Germany and of Stuttgart’s sheltered position between the Black Forest, the Swabian Alb, the Schurwald and the Swabian-Franconian Forest. Due to orographic conditions, it is impossible to indicate a consistent wind rose for the whole of Stuttgart. The position between the surrounding mountain ranges leads to a frequent development of local wind systems, especially at the slopes and in the valleys. Even if these winds have no high wind speeds, they play a significant role for the local air supply in some city districts.

Specific need and climate protection initiatives developed in the area (eventual)

  • Specific needs of the area
    Improving the air quality, reducing (traffic) noise and improving the urban climate quality in the inner city (mitigate UHI), mitigate the mobility infrastructure impact in the urban area.
  • Specific experiences related with climate or energy policies in the area or in comparable contexts
    KLIKS (climate protection concept), SEAP (Covenant of Mayors), climate atlas for the whole region with hints for urban planning, participation of the department (urban climatology) in all stages of urban planning.

Main redevelopment indication, expected results (also positive effect on other sectorial polices), local involvement

  • Redevelopment indications, planning tools to be implemented, main guidelines to develop the specific project
    To be definedStuttgart has a lot of brownfields at its disposal (former track areas, trade/small-scale industry areas …). Urban planning in Stuttgart prefers inner development (effective protection of areas with high climatic relevance in hillside situations and in the outskirts) and needs brownfields to build residential quarters. So objectives are to spar outskirt areas and to optimize high density areas with a special focus on climate issues. Development of a GIS-based tool for optimizing process.
  • Expected results
    Analysis of the effect “urban head island”, impacts on UHI concerning test actions in brownfield redevelopment (analysis and prognosis), also microclimatic impacts on new residential use (better conditions, surrending of air conditioner etc.)Answer to the following questions:How should we distribute green space in the inner city to maximize the impacts/mitigation of UHI?Could we transfer “standard actions” to over-all urban planning (inner development)? Where is the limit of the compact formed city?
  • Describe how the expected results of your PA can positively affect the environmental and agricultural policies in your region
    PA is part of a climate change adaptation concept in Stuttgart, we could better steer the adaptation process.
  • Report how the different level of stakeholders will be involved in the pilot action
    Presentation and discussion in an environmental advisory board (incl. parts of city council), also in the office for urban planning and redevelopment, in the urban building committee (architects etc.)